There are different types of penicillin and used to treat different kinds of infections, such as skin infections, dental infections, ear infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and other infections caused by bacteria. These drugs isnot effective for colds, flu, and other infections caused by viruses. Examples of penicillins are penicillin V (Beepen-VK, Pen-Vee K, V-cillin K, Veetids) and amoxicillin (Amoxil, Polymox, Trimox, Wymox). Penicillins may be mix with other ingredients called beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the penicillin from bacterial enzymes that may destroy it before its function. Thus, penicillins are obtained via prescription.
The original form of penicillin is called penicillin G. It is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic, which can be destroyed by stomach acid, but it is still useful against anaerobic bacteria. Newer penicillins are resistant to stomach acid, such as penicillin V, or have a broader spectrum, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin.
Penicillins are effective against infections in many parts of the body, including the mouth and throat, skin and soft tissue, tonsils, heart, lungs, and ears. However, since many bacteria are resistant to penicillin, it is often wise to do a culture and sensitivity test before using penicillin. In some cases, there are only a few types of bacteria that are likely to be a problem, and so it is appropriate to use penicillin without testing. For instance, dentists often prescribe penicillin to prevent infections after dental surgery.
Penicillins are usually very safe and the greatest risk is an allergic reaction, which can be severe. People who have been allergic to cephalosporins are likely to be allergic to penicillins. Moreover, people with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain other medicines can have problems if they take penicillin.
In conclusion, penicillin is a compound with three chiral center and the stereochemistry is as follows:
The carbon labeled 2 is S, carbon labeled 5 is R and carbon labeled 6 is S.